- Reset (plot)
- Plots in 2D (plot)
- Plots in 3D (plot)
- Support functions for Plots (plot)
- Plotting Text (plot)
- Adaptive Evaluation for Plots (plot)
- Colors (plot)
- Save Images to Files (plot)
- Functions for Animated Graphics (plot)
- MatPlotLib (plot)
- Logarithmic Plots (plot)
- LaTeX (plot)

The plot functions of EMT.

white:=0; black:=1; red:=2; green:=3; blue:=4; cyan:=5; olive:=6; lightgray:=7; gray:=8; darkgray:=9; orange:=10;

turquoise:=12; lightblue:=13; lightorange:=14; yellow:=15;

ResetEpsilon:=epsilon(); ResetView:=_view();

functionreset

Resets many internal settings. This function resets the default settings for colors, line width, the default view, and other basic settings for Euler graphics. It does also unclip the window, and release the hold flag. Moreover, the function resets the default format to long, and restores the default epsilon. See:

restart (Euler Core),

restart (Maxima Documentation)

plot2d() handles all plotting in the plane. This includes plots of functions of one variable, implicit plots of functions of two variables, plots of curves and polygons in the plane, data and bar plots of two vectors, or clouds of points in the plane.

plot3d() handles all plotting in 3D stereographic view. This includes plots of functions of two variables, implicit plots of functions of three variables, plots of surfaces, bar plots of matrices, or clouds of points in the space. There is an option to view the plot in anaglyph mode with red/cyan glasses.

For a demonstration of 2D plots in Euler, see the following introduction notebook.

functionplot2d(xv,yv=none,btest=none, a=none,b=2,c=none,d=2, xmin=none, xmax=1, r=none, n=none, logplot=0, grid=none, frame=none, framecolor=none, square=0, color=none, thickness=1, style=none, auto=1, add=0, user=0, delta=0.1, points=0, addpoints=0, pointstyle=none, bar=0, histogram=0, distribution=0, even=0, steps=0, own=0, adaptive=1, hue=0, level=none, contour=0, nc=defaultnc, filled=0, fillcolor=none, outline=1, title="",xl=none,yl=none, maps=0, contourcolor=none, contourwidth=1, ticks=1, margin=none, clipping=true, cx=0, cy=0, insimg=0, spectral=0, cgrid=none, vertical=1, smaller=none, dl=0, niveau=none, levels=none)

Multipurpose plot function for plots in the plane. Multi-Purpose function for 2D plots. For an overview of Graphics and Plots in EMT, double click the following link. See:

Plots (Overview) This function can do plots of functions of one variables, data plots, curves in the plane, bar plots, grids of complex numbers, and implicit plots of functions of two variables. Parameters x,y : equations, functions or data vectors a,b,c,d : Plot area (default a=-2,b=2) r : if r is set, then a=cx-r, b=cx+r, c=cy-r, d=cy+r r can be a vector [rx,ry] or a vector [rx1,rx2,ry1,ry2]. xmin,xmax : range of the parameter for curves auto : Determine y-range automatically (default) square : if true, try to keep square x-y-ranges n : number of intervals (default is adaptive) grid : 0 = no grid and labels, 1 = axis only, 2 = normal grid (see below for the number of grid lines) 3 = inside axis 4 = no grid 5 = full grid including margin 6 = ticks at the frame 7 = axis only 8 = axis only, sub-ticks frame: 0 = no frame framecolor: color of the frame and the grid margin : number between 0 and 0.4 for the margin around the plot color : Color of curves. If this is a vector of colors, it will be used for each row of a matrix of plots. In the case of point plots, it should be a column vector. If a row vector or a full matrix of colors is used for point plots, it will be used for each data point. thickness : line thickness for curves This value can be smaller than 1 for very thin lines. style : Plot style for lines, markers, and fills. For points use "[]", "<>", ".", "..", "...", "*", "+", "|", "-", "o" "[]#", "<>#", "o#" (filled shapes) "[]w", "<>w", "ow" (non-transparent) For lines use "-", "--", "-.", ".", ".-.", "-.-", "->" For filled polygons or bar plots use "#", "#O", "O", "/", "\", "\/", "+", "|", "-", "t" points : plot single points instead of line segments addpoints : if true, plots line segments and points add : add the plot to the existing plot user : enable user interaction for functions delta : step size for user interaction bar : bar plot (x are the interval bounds, y the interval values) histogram : plots the frequencies of x in n subintervals distribution=n : plots the distribution of x with n subintervals even : use inter values for automatic histograms. steps : plots the function as a step function (steps=1,2) adaptive : use adaptive plots (n is the minimal number of steps) level : plot level lines of an implicit function of two variables outline : draws boundary of level ranges. If the level value is a 2xn matrix, ranges of levels will be drawn in the color using the given fill style. If outline is true, it will be drawn in the contour color. Using this feature, regions of f(x,y) can be marked. Instead of a 2xn matrix, a simple vector of levels can be used and dl can be set to the thickness of these levels. hue : add hue color to the level plot to indicate the function value contour : Use level plot with automatic levels nc : number of automatic level lines title : plot title (default "") xl, yl : labels for the x- and y-axis smaller : if >0, there will be more space to the left for labels. vertical : Turns vertical labels on or off. This changes the global variable verticallabels locally for one plot. The value 1 sets only vertical text, the value 2 uses vertical numerical labels on the y axis. filled : fill the plot of a curve fillcolor : fill color for bar and filled curves outline : boundary for filled polygons logplot : set logarithmic plots 1 = logplot in y, 2 = logplot in xy, 3 = logplot in x own : A string, which points to an own plot routine. With >user, you get the same user interaction as in plot2d. The range will be set before each call to your function. maps : map expressions (0 is faster), functions are always mapped. contourcolor : color of contour lines contourwidth : width of contour lines clipping : toggles the clipping (default is true) title : This can be used to describe the plot. The title will appear above the plot. Moreover, a label for the x and y axis can be added with xl="string" or yl="string". Other labels can be added with the functions label() or labelbox(). The title can be a unicode string or an image of a Latex formula. cgrid : Determines the number of grid lines for plots of complex grids. Should be a divisor of the the matrix size minus 1 (number of subintervals). cgrid can be a vector [cx,cy]. Typical Examples: >plot2d("x^3-x",-1,2,title="y=x^3-x",yl="y",xl="x"); >plot2d("x^3-x",a=0,b=2,c=-1,d=2,grid=3,<frame); >plot2d({{"x^3-a*x",a=1}},>user,title="Press any key!"); >function f(x) &= x^x; >plot2d(f,r=1,cx=1,cy=1,color=blue,thickness=2); >plot2d(&diff(f(x),x),>add,color=red,style="-.-"); >x=linspace(0,2pi,1000); >plot2d(sin(5x),cos(7x)); >plot2d(sin(x),cos(x)*0.5,r=1,>filled,style="/"); >k=0:10; >plot2d(k,bin(10,k),>bar); >plot2d(k,bin(10,k)); plot2d(k,bin(10,k),>points,>add); >plot2d(normal(1,1000),>distribution,style="O"); >plot2d("qnormal",0,5;2.5,0.5,>filled); >plot2d("x^2",0,1,steps=1,color=red,n=10); >plot2d("x^2",>add,steps=2,color=blue,n=10); >plot2d("x^3-y^2",>contour,>hue,>spectral); >plot2d("x^3-y^2",level=0,contourwidth=3,>add,contourcolor=red); Overview The function can plot - expressions, call collections or functions of one variable, - parametric curves, - x data against y data, - implicit functions, - bar plots, - complex grids, - polygons. If a function or expression for xv is given, plot2d() will compute values in the given range using the function or expression. The expression must be an expression in the variable x. The range must be defined in the parameters a and b unless the default range [-2,2] should be used. The y-range will be computed automatically, unless c and d are specified, or a radius r, which yields the range [-r,r] for x and y. For plots of functions, plot2d will use an adaptive evaluation of the function by default. To speed up the plot for complicated functions, switch this off with <adaptive, and optionally decrease the number of intervals n. Moreover, plot2d() will by default use mapping. I.e., it will compute the plot element for element. If your expression or your functions can handle a vector x, you can switch that off with <maps for faster evaluation. Note that adaptive plots are always computed element for element. The parameter >user allows the user to zoom and shift the plot with the cursor keys or the mouse. >plot2d("x^3-x",-1,2); >plot2d("x^x",r=1,cx=1,cy=1); >plot2d("sin(x)*exp(-x)",>user); If functions or expressions for both xv and for yv are specified, plot2d() will compute a curve with the xv values as x-coordinates and the yv values as y-coordinates. In this case, a range should be defined for the parameter using xmin, xmax. Expressions contained in strings must always be expressions in the parameter variable x. >plot2d("cos(x)","sin(3*x)",xmin=0,xmax=2pi); >plot2d("cos(x)","sin(x)^3",xmin=0,xmax=2pi,>filled,style="/"); If xv and yv are data vectors, these data will be used as x- and y-coordinates of a curve. In this case, a, b, c, and d, or a radius r can be specified, or the plot window will adjust automatically to the data. Alternatively, >square can be set to keep a square aspect ratio. >t=linspace(0,1,1000); r=exp(-t); x=r*cos(2pi*t); y=r*sin(2pi*t); >plot2d(x,y,r=1): To plot sets of points use >points. Then xv and yv can be vectors of coordinates. If the color is a vector of colors, each points gets a different color. For a matrix of coordinates and a column vector, the color applies to the rows of the matrix. The parameter >addpoints adds points to line segments for plots of data. >plot2d(normal(1000),normal(1000),>points,grid=6,style=".."); The function plot2d() can also plot curves or data as filled polygons with >filled. The fill color is determined by the argument "fillcolor", and on optional <outline prevents drawing the boundary for all styles but the default one. >t=linspace(0,2pi,6); plot2d(cos(t),sin(t),>filled,style="|"); If xv is a sorted vector, and yv is a vector of intervals, then plot2d will plot the filled ranges of the intervals in the plane. The fill styles are the same as the styles of polygons. >t=-1:0.01:1; x=~t-0.01,t+0.01~; y=x^3-x; >plot2d(t,y): Implicit plots show level lines solving f(x,y)=level, where "level" can be a single value or a vector of values. If level="auto", there will be nc level lines, which will spread between the minimum and the maximum of the function evenly. Darker or lighter color can be added with >hue to indicate value of the function. For implicit functions, xv must be a function or an expression of the parameters x and y, or, alternatively, xv can be a matrix of values. >plot2d("x^2+y^3+x*y",level=1,r=4,n=100); >plot2d("x^2+2*y^2-x*y",level=0:0.1:10,n=100,contourcolor=white,>hue); Implicit plots can also show ranges of levels. Then level must be a 2xn matrix of level intervals, where the first row contains the start and the second row the end of each interval. Alternatively, a simple row vector can be used for level, and a parameter dl extends the level values to intervals. >plot2d("x^2+y^3+x*y",level=[0,2,4;1,3,5],style="/",r=2,n=100); >plot2d("x^2+y^3+x*y",level=-10:20,r=2,style="-",dl=0.1,n=100); The data for bar plots (bar=1) and histograms (histogram=1) can either be explicitly given in xv and yv, or can be computed from an empirical distribution in xv with >distribution (or distribution=n). Histograms of xv values will be computed automatically with >histogram. If >even is specified, the xv values will be counted in integer intervals. >plot2d(normal(10000),distribution=50); >k=0:10; m=bin(10,k); x=(0:11)-0.5; plot2d(x,m,>bar); >columnsplot(m,k); >plot2d(random(600)*6,histogram=6); Logarithmic plots can be plotted either using a logarithmic scale in y with logplot=1, or using logarithmic scales in x and y with logplot=2, or in x with logplot=3. >plot2d("exp(x^3-x)*x^2",1,5,logplot=1); If you wish to show more than one function in a single plot use several calls to plot2d, and >add in all, but the first call, or provide a vector of expressions and functions, or use a matrix of yv values, with one function in each row. >plot2d("sin(x)",0,2pi); plot2d("cos(x)",color=blue,style="--",>add); >plot2d("sin(x)",0,pi); plot2d(2,sin(2),>points,>add); >plot2d(["exp(x)","1+x"],color=[black,blue],style=["-","-.-"]); >x=0:0.01:1; n=(0:10)'; plot2d(x,x^n,color=2:12); If xv is a function or an expression, >user allows the user to zoom (+/-), set the plot window with the mouse, or move the plot (cursor keys). The space key will reset the plot to the original plot window. If xv is a data, then >user will simply wait for key stroke. An array of complex numbers can also be plotted. Then the grid points will be connected. If a number of grid lines is specified (or a 1x2 vector of grid lines) in the argument cgrid only those grid lines are visible. >r=linspace(0,1,50); a=linspace(0,2pi,200)'; z=r*exp(I*a); >plot2d(exp(z),cgrid=[40,10]): >r=linspace(0,1,10); a=linspace(0,2pi,40)'; z=r*exp(I*a); >plot2d(exp(z),>points,>add): See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation),

label (Plot Functions),

label (Maxima Documentation),

rgb (Plot Functions),

yaxis (Plot Functions),

yaxis (Maxima Documentation),

xgrid (Plot Functions),

xlabel (Plot Functions),

xlabel (Maxima Documentation),

call (Euler Core)

functionplot3d(x, y=none, z=none, xmin=none, xmax=none, ymin=-1, ymax=1, n=60, a=none, b=none, c=none, d=none, r=none, scale=1, fscale=-1, frame=1, angle=none, height=none, zoom=none, distance=none, view=none, center=none, cx=0, cy=0, cz=0, xlabel="x", ylabel="y", zlabel="z", sframe=none, grid=none, polar=false, sliced=false, disconnect=none, hue=false, light=[2,3,4], amb=0.1, max=0.9, spectral=false, xhue=0, yhue=0, zhue=0, hues=none, color=none, framecolor=none, transparent=0, anaglyph=0, user=0, duser=0.1, wire=false, wirecolor=none, points=false, style=".", lines=false, contour=false, rotate=false, title="", bar=false, own=false, level=none, dl=0, nc=defaultnc, values=none, contourcolor=none, contourwidth=1, implicit=false, zmin=-1, zmax=-1, maps=false, insimg=false, limits=none, add=false, cp=false, cpcolor=none, cplevel=none, cpdelta=0.05, levels=none, niveau=none, linewidth=none, fillcolor=none, fullwindow=true, zscale=false,zlim=none)

General function for 3D plots. Multi-Purpose function for 3D plots. For an overview of Graphics and Plots in EMT, double click the following link. See:

Plots (Overview) This function can plot 3D plots with graphs of functions of two variables, parameterized surfaces, space curves, clouds of points, solutions of an equation of three variables. All 3D plots can be shown as anaglyphs. Parameters x : expression in x and y x,y,z : matrices of the coordinates of a surface x,y,z : expressions in x and y for a parametric surface x,y,z : expressions in x to plot a space curve xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax : x,y bounds for expressions a,b,c,d : Alternative for xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax. r : Can be used instead of xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax. r can be a vector [rx,ry] or [rx,ry,rz]. r is also used in polar plots. cx, cy, cr : Center of plot, if r is used. n : Accuracy, i.e. the number of sub-intervals. If n is a vector, it is used in each direction. grid : Determines the grid lines. For plots of functions, n can be larger than grid, but it will be adjusted to be a multiple of grid. For x-y-z-plots the user has to take care of this. A 1x2 vector can be used for each direction. scale : Scale plot to this size (0 = no scaling, 1 = default). If scale is a 1x3 vector, it will scale in each direction. Function plots will be auot-scaled. But x-y-z-plots often need to be scaled in some direction. fscale : Scales the z-values for a function to this range (0=no, -1=auto) zscale : Scales data matrices in z-direction. Can be combined with scale=[sx,sy,sz]. The value of zscale is used as a scaling factor. It should be between 0.1 and 1. wire : Generates a wire plot (>wire). polar : Generats a polar plot (>polar) points : Plots a cloud of points. (>points) sliced : Plot a sliced version (0=no, 1=x-direction, 2=y-direction). hue : Compute shading using a light source. light, amb, max : Controls the shading setting the light point, ambient and maximum. contour : Show thick level lines (with automatic levels). levels: If true, set thin level lines (automatic levels). level : Level lines (1xn vector) or level ranges (2xn vector). dl : Expand level lines (1xn) to level ranges (2xn) with this thickness. spectral : Use spectral colors instead of monochrome hue. There are spectral schemes from spectral=1 (>spectral) to spectral=9. >spectral defaults to >zhue. In fact, this is equivalent to color=-2 to color=-10. xhue,yhue,zhue : Use these coordinates instead of a light source. hues : A matrix of hue values from 0 to 1 for the shading for x-y-z-plots. The matrix must have a size compatible to x,y,z. values : Values to be used for contour plots (default: z-values) in x-y-z-plots with hue. The levels and the limits are computedusing these values. The matrix must be compatible to the matrices x, y, z. contourcolor : Color of contour lines. contourwidth : Width of contour lines. fillcolor : Fill color for 3d surfaces with no hue. limits : Clip the plot outside an interval of values. This is a 1x2 matrix [min,max]. The values taken from the parameter values (by default the z-values). In case of a function plot, you may want to set zlim to restrict the frame (a 1x2 matrix too). user : The user can turn the plot around with the keyboard. left,right,up,down turns the plot. +,- zooms the plot. Space resets the plot. Return ends the user interaction. The key a generates an anaglyph plot. The key l toggles the movement of the light source for hue plots. The key c moves the plot up, down, left or right. duser : Controls the accuracy of the user action (default 0.1). lines : Plot a line in space given by three expressions in x. Use xmin, xmax for the bounds of the parameter x. rotate : Rotation plot of a funciton in one expression in x. Use xmin, xmax for the bounds of the parameter x. anaglyph : Generate an anaglyph 3d plot (>anaglyph). This plot needs red-dyan glasses to be viewed properly. viewangle : The default angle of view, rotated around the z-axis. The value is in radians, but 10° etc. can be used. 0 is in the direction of the x-axis. viewheight : The height of view above the x-y-axis (-pi/2 to pi/2). Use -90° to 90°. zoom : The zoom of view. Default is around 2.6. distance : Distance of view. Default is 5. Note that the plot is usually scaled unless <scale is set. The distance applies to the scaled plot. view : The complete view, a 1x4 vector conaining distance, zoom, viewangle, viewheight. center : This vector moves the center of the plot. It is necessary if the plot should not be centered in (0,0,0) automatically. For x-y-z-plots with an own frame, it is essential. implicit : Creates an implict plots of f(x,y,z)=0. The plot consists of grid lines on the surface cut by planes parallel to an axis. Use 0=off, 1=x, 2=y, 4=z to select the axis. These values can be added. style : Plot style for markers (see plot2d for available styles). maps : Expressions should be mapped (faster, if 0). Functions are always mapped. color : Color for markers and for shaded surfaces wirecolor : Color for wire plots frame : If 0 (<frame), no frame is drawn. If this is a vector, it must be of the form [xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax,zmin,zmax]. Make sure that the plot fits into the frame. The vector is only applied to x-y-z-plots, not to plot of functions. framecolor : The color of the 3D frame. sframe : Sets the ranges for the values on the frame. This is a vector of the same form as frame. Use this, if the true ranges are different from the values. cp : Draws a contour plane below the plot (>cp). cpcolor : The color for the contour plane. cplevel : The level lines for the contour plane. cpdelta : The distance (relative) to the z-range of the contour plane. Typical Examples: >plot3d("x*y",r=1,title="z=x*y"): >plot3d("x*y^2",>user,r=1,title="Press cursor keys or return!"): >plot3d("x^2*y^3",r=0.9,zlabel="x^2*y^3",angle=30°,height=20°,zoom=3, ... > >cp,cplevel="thin",cpcolor=green): >plot3d("x^2+y^3",angle=0°,>contour,>spectral): >plot3d("x^y-y^x",a=0,b=4,c=0,d=4,angle=40°,level=0, ... > contourwidth=4,contourcolor=red,n=100): >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>wire,>anaglyph,title="Use Red/Cyan Glasses!",n=10): >plot3d("x^3+y^2",0,2,0,10,scale=[5,1,2],zoom=3.2,grid=10,>transparent): >plot3d("x^2+y^3+sin(z)^2-1",r=pi,implicit=4,zoom=3): >x=-1:0.05:1; y=x'; plot3d(x,x*y^2,y,>hue,angle=20°): >h=x^2+y^2; ... >plot3d(x,y,(y-x)/2,level=-2:0.1:2,values=h,hues=h/2,>spectral): >X=normal(3,1000); plot3d(X[1],X[2],X[3],>points,zoom=3,>user): >Y=cumsum(X); plot3d(Y[1],Y[2],Y[3],>wire,>user): >t=linspace(0,2,1000); ... >plot3d(sin(2pi*t),cos(2pi*t),t,>wire,>anaglyph): >plot3d("min(1/(x^2+y^2),3)",r=1.5,>hue,limits=[0,2.9]): Overview This function can plot - the graph of a function in two variables, - as a wire plot, - a solid plot, - optionally with shading, - or with level lines. - surfaces, described by three matrices of x-, y-, and z-coordinates, or by three functions of two parameters. - curves in space, - a cloud of points, - implicit functions of 3 variables, - anaglyphs. The plot3d function uses the convention, that the x axis goes to the right, the y axis points into the screen, and the z axis goes vertically upwards. With these orientations, it plots in central projection. The plot can be turned to the left and right around the z axis, and up and down. The point that the user looks at is the origin (0,0,0) by default. The default position of the eye is in the positive quadrant x,y>0, at a medium height above the x-y plane. The default plot style is a grid with two sides in different colors, which are globally determined by fillcolor(). >plot3d("-x*y^2"): >plot3d("x^2+y^4",grid=20,fillcolor=[gray,rgb(0.6,0.6,0.6)]): The direction of the view and the zoom can be set with the arguments angle, height, zoom and distance. Plots can be interactive with >user. In this case the user can turn the plot with the cursor keys, and zoom the plot with +/-. The current values of the angles and zoom are visible in the status line. The space key will reset the default view. For solid plots with light, the key l will toggle to the movement of the light. The center of the plot can also be moved in four directions. You can toggle the movement of the plot center with the key c. >plot3d("x^2+y^2",angle=0°,height=70°,distance=6,zoom=4): >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>user): To plot a function of x and y, use an expression string, a call collection (such as {{"a*x*y",a=4}}) or a function name for the first parameter. "plot3d" will evaluate the function on a grid of x and y values, and plot the graph of the function. The parameter n determines the number of grid lines in both directions (or in each direction if it is a 1x2 vector). The function values will be scaled in z direction, but not in x or y direction. By default (fscale=-1), the scaling will depend on the x and y range to make the graph look good. But an own scaling factor can be used by setting fscale to some positive value. All 3D plots can be scaled in all directions with the parameter scale. Instead of rectangle coordinates, polar coordinates can be used with >polar. >plot3d("exp(-x)*sin(y)",0,2,0,2pi,scale=[3,6/(2pi),2]): >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>polar,fscale=0.5): To plot a surface from data, plot3d needs the x, y and z coordinates of the surface. These coordinates must be stored in three matrices. So the parameterization of the surface is always rectangular. Note, that three matrices with compatible size must be provided, one for each coordinate of the surface. Row and column vectors will be expanded using the rules of the matrix language. >x=-1:0.05:1; y=x'; z=x*y; plot3d(x-y,x+y,z,grid=10); >a=linspace(-pi/2,pi/2,90); b=linspace(0,2pi,180)'; ... >plot3d(cos(a)*cos(b),cos(a)*sin(b),sin(a),grid=18): These x-y-z-plots can be scaled with scale=[sx,sy,sz]. It is possible to change the frame using frame=[x1,x2,y1,y2,z1,z2]. If no scaling is provided the dimensions will be proportional to the dimensions of the plot itself. If three function names, or three expressions of the variables x and y are provided then plot3d will compute the coordinates of the surface using the ranges [xmin,xmax] for x or [ymin,ymax] for y. Again, n will be the number of partitions. >plot3d("x*y^2","x-y","x+y",xmin=-1,xmax=1,ymin=-1,ymax=1,grid=10): To add shading to a solid plot, use >hue. The shading will be computed assuming a light from a given direction, and ambient light of a given brightness. Its color can be changed, e.g. with color=red. There is also a transparent color and a spectral color which can be set with with >spectral (or color=redgreen, yellowblue, purplegreen, blueyellow, greenred, blueyellow, greenpurple, yellowblue). In case of a spectral shading use >zhue for a hue depending on the z-values and >xhue, >yhue respectively instead of >hue. In case of a surface plot with coordinate matrices, it is possible to add a matrix of hue values between 0 and 1. >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>hue,grid=10,color=green,wirecolor=black); >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>hue,grid=10,color=transparent): >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>zhue,grid=10,color=redgreen): >x=-1:0.01:1; y=x'; ... >plot3d(x,y,x^2+y^2,hues=scalematrix(x+y),>spectral,grid=10): Level lines at specific levels can be added with level=v, where v is a vector of level values. The color of the contour lines can be set with contourcolor=color. The values for the level lines refer to the z value of the surface. But if a matrix of values is provided with values=w, then these values will be used to plot the contour lines at the specific levels. This form of level lines will work only for surfaces given by data and if level=v is provided. >plot3d("y^2-x^3",level=-2:0.1:2,color=gray,contourcolor=red,n=100): >x=-1:0.01:1; y=x'; ... >plot3d(x,y,y^2-x^3/4,level=-3:0.1:3,>spectral,values=(1-x^2)+y^2): Levels can also be ranges of levels in a 2xn matrix. The first row are the lower, the second the upper bounds of the ranges. The area between the ranges is plotted in the contour color. In fact, the argument >contour, a value for dl or level="thick" automatically produces ranges. Instead a vector, level lines can be expanded with a parameter dl for a matrix of level ranges. >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>contour,n=100): >plot3d("x*y",level=-2:0.1:2,dl=0.01,contourcolor=red,n=100,angle=20°): >plot3d("x*y",level=[-2;0],contourcolor=red,n=100,angle=20°): Below each graph of a function a contour plane can be added with >cp. By default it has the same style as the plot, unless the plot is a simple grid plot. But the style can be set to other styles with cp=2 or cp=3. Moreover, there are the parameters cpdelta, cpcolor, cplevel. >plot3d("x^2+y^2",>spectral,grid=10,>n=100, ... > >cp,cpdelta=0.2,cplevel="thin"): To plot a cloud of points, use three vectors of x-, y- and z-coordinates, and set points=1. You can set the point style with style, which must be one of "[]", "<>", ".", "..", "*", "+", or "o". For a big lot of points, it looks good to use ".", and optionally view the cloud in anaglyph mode (>anaglyph). For a point cloud with points in different colors, the color parameter can be a row vector of colors. In this case, the points in the back are drawn before the points in the front. >X=random(3,10000); x=X[1]; y=X[2]; z=X[3]; c=1-(x+y)/2; ... >plot3d(x,y,z,>points,color=rgb(c,c,1-c),style=".."): A surface can also be drawn as a wire frame plot with >wire. To plot one curve or several curves in 3D, either provide three vectors of data containing the x-, y- and z-parameters of the curve, or three functions or expressions in the variable x, and set >lines. In the case of three functions, the range [xmin,xmax] is used. To plot several curves at once, use three matrices, with one row for each curve, and specify lines=1. >phi=linspace(0,2,1000); ... >x=cos(2pi*phi); y=sin(2pi*phi); z=phi; ... >x1=cos(2pi*phi+pi); y1=sin(2pi*phi+pi); ... >plot3d(x_x1,y_y1,z,>lines): Functions of one variable rotated around the x axis can be plotted with rotate=1. In this case, plot3d needs an expression in x, or a function f(x), and the range is [xmin,xmax]. The function can also be rotated around the z axis (rotate=2). In this case use a non-negative xmin. >function f(x) := x^2+1 >plot3d("f",rotate=1,scale=[2,1,1],grid=10): Implicit plots show the solutions of f(x,y,z)=0 with >implicit. The function needs an expression in x, y, and z, or the name of a function f. Cuts trough this set orthogonal to an axis will be drawn. Use 1 for the x-axis, 2 for the y-axis and 4 for the z-axis. Implicit plots are the slowest of the 3D plots. You can speed up the plot using expressions, which can handle matrices, with maps=0. The color and width of the lines can be set. >plot3d("x^2+y^2+z^2-1",r=1.2,>implicit, ... > contourcolor=green,contourwidth=0.5); All plots can be anaglyphs. Use red/cyan glasses to see the rather nice 3D effect. Either enter the parameter >analgyph, or press a in interactive plots. >plot3d("x^2+y^2+z^2-1",r=1.2,>implicit,wirecolor=red,>anaglyph): EMT does not have a true 3D scene. If you want to add more than one object to a 3D plot, you need to plot the object further away at first. The parameter >add can be used to hold the scene for the second plot. If such plots should be interactive or anaglyphs, a plot function together with the >own parameter must be used. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

call (Euler Core)

It should not be necessary to call these functions directly, unless a special effect is needed. You can use plot2d or plot3d instead. Have a look at the following notebook.

There are also some core functions, which are not explained here. Look at the following documentation, if you need those.

Moreover, some of the following functions link to core functions for further details.

functionoverwrite window

window(c1,r1,c2,r2) sets a plotting window. The coordinates must be screen coordinates. window() returns the active window coordinates. See:

coordinates (Euler Core)

functionsquarewindow()

Make the plot window square. This function is called by fullwindow() and shrinkwindow() with the >square parameter. It makes the window square in screen coordinates by retracting its larger dimension towards the middle of the window. See:

fullwindow (Plot Functions),

shrinkwindow (Plot Functions)

functionfullwindow(title=false, square=true)

Takes the full size for the plots The plot window is the part that is actually used by plot2d and plot3d for graphs. For plot2d() it does not include the labels, the tick marks, or the heading. See:

allwindow (Plot Functions),

shrinkwindow (Plot Functions),

reset (Plot Functions),

reset (Maxima Documentation)

functionshrinkwindow(smaller=false, square=true)

shrinkwindow() shrinks the window to allow labels. This sets the default plot window, leaving place for the labels at the left and the button, and for the title line. For more space, use fullwindow(). If you need larger labels at the y-axis, set >smaller. If you want to have an exact 1:1 square plot use >square. See:

fullwindow (Plot Functions),

reset (Plot Functions),

reset (Maxima Documentation)

functionallwindow

Takes all of the window for the plot See:

fullwindow (Plot Functions),

shrinkwindow (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite setplot

setplot(xmin xmax ymin ymax) sets the plot coordinates. Also setplot([xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax]). setplot() resets it.

functionoverwrite aspect(w:positive number=none, h:positive number=1, reset=true)

Set the window aspect to w times h. This function reduces the plot window to a new window with proportions w times h. The font size remains the same as in the full window. To export such a plot, use the crop feature. If an aspect with larger width is active, insimg() will insert only the active portion of the window. Without parameters, the function resets to the default window. Returns the current window ratio. Example: >aspect(2); plot2d("sin(x)",0,2pi); insimg(); aspect(); See:

insimg (Euler Core),

insimg (Plot Functions)

functionunclip

Clips to the complete graphics screen

functionoverwrite clip

clip(c1,r1,c2,r2) sets the clipping window. The coordinates must be screen coordinates. clip() returns the active clipping window coordinates. The function can also be used with a 1x4 vector. It returns a 1x4 vector. Calls the built-in function _clip(). See:

unclip (Plot Functions)

functionclipmore(x,more=0)

Sets the clipping window. The coordinates must be screen coordinates. There is some extra space around the area x clip() returns the active clipping window coordinates.

functionoverwrite args toscreen(x,y=none)

Convert the x-y-coordinates to screen coordinates Plot coordinates are generated by the last plot or by setplot(). They reflect the x-y-positions of the points in the plot. Screen coordinates range from 0..1024 (even for non-quadratic aspect rations). The function calls the built-in function _toscreen([x,y]), which accepts and returns 1x2 vectors. With only one parameter, the function calls _toscreen() directly assuming a 1x2 vector. With two parameters, it assumes x and y separately, and returns {c,r}. See:

aspect (Euler Core),

aspect (Plot Functions),

setplot (Euler Core),

setplot (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite args fromscreen(c,r=none)

Convert the screen coordinates v[1],v[2] to x-y-coordinates. fromscreen(c,r) : column and row in screen coordinates, returns {x,y} [c,r] : use function with vectors, returns [x,y] Calls the built-in function _fromscreen(). For more explanation about coordinates see the function toscreen(). See:

toscreen (Plot Functions)

functionlabel(text, x:number, y:number, offset=15, .. color=none, ypos="l", xpos="r", pos=none, scale=1/3, tcolor=0)

Label the x-y-value with the text t. Labels a point in plot coordinates. The position of the label is by default at the lower right of the point. The label can be simple text or an RGB matrix, e.g. parsed from a Latex formula. text : String, vector of strings or RGB matrix. A vector of strings is line by line. To get an RGB matrix of color values from a Latex formula, use latex(expr). x,y : Position in plot coordinates. offset : In screen coordinates 0..1024. color : Color of the label. ypos : One of "u", "c", "l" (upper, center, lower) xpos : One of "l", "c", "r" (left, center, right) pos : Combination of ypos and xpos, such as "ur" Examples: >plot2d("x^2",r=2); label(["Ursprung","(0,0)"],0,0): >function f(x) := x^3-x; ... >plot2d("f",r=2); ... >label("Min",1/sqrt(3),f(1/sqrt(3)),pos="lc"); ... >label("Max",-1/sqrt(3),f(-1/sqrt(3)),pos="uc"); ... >label(latex("y=x^3-x",factor=2),-1,1,pos="ur"): See:

labelbox (Plot Functions),

latex (Plot Functions)

functionlabelbox(labels, styles="-", colors:real=1, x=0.98, y=0.02, style="O#", color=0, w=none, points=0, tcolor=none, left=0, wt=0.3, latex=0, scale=1, latexwidth=5)

Plot a box with labels and line styles for the functions. A label box is a list of labels for each function in the plot. The box shows a string and a line in the style and color of the function for each function. For point plots the box can show point styles. labels : string, or vector of strings styles : string or string of vector, styles of the functions colors : real vector, colors of the functions w : width of the box (fraction of plot window) x, y : upper right corner of label box (fractions) points : flag or vector of flags. color : background color style : background style left : align at the top left corner (default is top right) wt : fraction of the width for the text latex : parse each label through Latex and plot the formulas scale : take higher lines than the normal text height latexwidth : We assume that Latex formulas are 5 characters wide For a transparent box set style="t" and color=black for a black boundary. Set color=transparant for no boundary. >plot2d("x+x^3",-1,1); plot2d("x^4",color=blue,style="--",>add); >labelbox(["x+x^3","x^4"],colors=[black,blue],styles=["-","--"]): See:

label (Maxima Documentation)

functiontextbox(s, x=0.98, y=0.02, style="O#", color=0, tcolor=none, w:real=none, left=0, spaces=2, scale=1/3, center=false)

Plot a box with text. x,y : An anchor for the upper left corner of the box (fractions of plot area) s : A string or a vector of strings, one for each line of text tcolor : Color or an array of colors for the text lines w : an optional width of the box (fraction of plot area) left : align at the left edge (default is right edge) spaces : add some space to adjust for short strings center : center text in its box For styles and colors see labelbox(). >function f(x) &= x^3-x; ... >plot2d(f,r=2); ... >textbox(latex(&f(x),factor=2,color=green),0.4,0.2): See:

label (Plot Functions),

label (Maxima Documentation),

labelbox (Plot Functions)

functionplotbar1(x:number,y:number,w:number,h:number)

Plots a single bar rectangle with x,y,w,h in plot coordinates. Use barstyle() and barcolor() to modify the bar. See:

bar (Euler Core)

functionplotbar(x,y,w,h,color=none,st=none)

Plots bars with x,y,w,h in plot coordinates. The parameters can be vectors. x,y : lower left coordinate w,h : width and height color : color of bars style : style of bars See:

bar (Euler Core)

functionbarclear([x,y,w,h],color=0,style="O")

Clear a region in screen coordinates This can also be used to draw rectangles with specific style and color. The styles and colors will be reset after the plot. See:

bar (Euler Core)

functionxplotbar(x,y,w,h,st:string="#O")

Plots a bar with x,y,w,h in plot coordinates. Uses the plot coordinates from the last plot! Use setplot() to set new plot coordinates. Draws coordinates below the bar. use barstyle() and barcolor() to modify the bar. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionxplotrange(r:real vector, v:real vector)

Plots a bar plot of the multiplicities v[i] in the ranges r[i],r[i+1]. Obsolete. Use plot2d with the histogram=1 option. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionscalematrix(A)

Scales a matrix A, so that its value are in the range from 0 to 1.

functionargs select

Coordinates {x,y} of mouse clicks Stops if user clicks above the window. The function returns vectors {x,y} of the clicked coordinates. See:

mouse (Euler Core)

functiontextheight

Height of a letter.

functiontextwidth

Width of a letter.

functionticks(a=0, b=none, finer=false, vertical=false, n=none)

Ticks to be used for intervals [a,b]. This function is used to compute the ticks for plots. It tries to show ticks of major decimal values, but not too many or too few. The target number of ticks is 5, but for small windows this number is reduced. a,b : Plot range finer : compute for the fine grid in grid=8 vertical : compute grid for vertical plots (respect aspect ratio) n : target number of ticks The default for n is in the variable defaultnticks. Start value is 5. See:

xplot (Plot Functions),

ygrid (Plot Functions),

xgrid (Plot Functions)

functionxplot(x=0,y=0,grid=2,ticks=1,frame=1)

Works like plot, but shows axis ticks. This function is called by plot2d(). The user should prefer to call plot2d(). xplot() without parameters shows only axis ticks and the grid. See:

plot (Euler Core),

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionxmark(x=0,y=0,grid=2,ticks=1)

Works like mark, but shows axis ticks. xmark() shows only axis ticks and the grid. See:

mark (Euler Core),

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionsetplotm

The user can choose the plotting coordinates with the mouse. Returns plot coordinates.

functionniceform(x,n=10,f=1)

Return a string, containing a nicely formatted of x

functiongridstyle(st1:string=none, st2:string=none, color=none, textcolor=none, framecolor=none, grid=none)

Set the grid styles and colors and the frame color. st1 : axis lines st2 : other grid lines color : grid color textcolor : default text color for plots framecolor : frame color grid : Number for grid styles (see plot2d) See:

linestyle (Euler Core),

rgb (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functiongridcolor(c:integer=3)

Set the grid color. Returns the current color See plot2d,rgb

functioncomment fillcolor([color1, color2])

Set the fill color for both sides of 3D plots. fillcolor(none) or fillcolor() simply returns the old colors as a 1x2 vector of colors.

functionxgrid(xx, f=1, grid=2, ticks=1, color=none, .. xt=none, ylevel=none, textcolor=none)

Draws vertical grid lines on the plot window at x0,x1,... xgrid([x0,x1,...],f) additionally writes x0/f to the axis. f : factor (like 10^5) grid : 2 for normal grid (see plot2d) ticks : write labels below the axis color : tick color xt : use these numbers for the grid ylevel : draw the grid at this y level The default values for the grid styles are defaultgrid1, defaultgrid2,defaultgridcolor. See:

ygrid (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionxtick(x:real vector, s=none, latex=false)

Set non-conformal ticks to the x-axis x : real or real vector s : string, string vector or RGB image (if x is real) latex : parse string in s through LaTeX See:

xgrid (Plot Functions),

xaxis (Plot Functions),

xaxis (Maxima Documentation),

latex (Plot Functions)

functionygrid(yy, f=1, grid=2, ticks=1, color=none, .. yt=none, xlevel=none, textcolor=none, vertical=none)

Draws horizontal grid lines on the plot window at y0,y1,... ygrid([x0,x1,...],f) additionally writes x0/f to the axis. Parameters similar to xgrid(). >plot2d("x^3-x",<grid); plot() [-2, 2, -6, 6] >ygrid(ticks(-6,6,n=4)); >xgrid(-2:2); See:

xgrid (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionyaxis(x, yy=none, yt=none, color=none, textcolor=none, style=none, gridstyle=none, grid=false, vertical=false, left=true, axis=true, zero=false, ticks=1, labels=true)

Draws a y-axis to the plot window This function manually draws an axis with labels and grid lines vertical to the axis. x : x-coordinate of the axis yy : y-axis ticks of the axis (none: no ticks) yt : labels of axis ticks (real or string vector, none: take yy) color,style : color and style of axis textcolor : color of labels gridstyle : style of grid lines (rectangular to axis) grid : draw grid lines (true or false) vertical : draw labels vertically left : draw labels left of axis axis : draw axis line (true or false) zero : draw the label for 0 ticks : draw small ticks at the labels >fullwindow(); setplot(0,1.05,0,1.1); clg; >plot2d("exp(-x)",0,1,>add); >xaxis(0,0:0.1:1,style="->"); >yaxis(0,0.1:0.1:1,style="->",>left); >yaxis(1,style=".",>grid); >yaxis(1.05,[1,0.5,0.25],>grid,<axis); See:

xaxis (Plot Functions),

xaxis (Maxima Documentation)

functionxaxis(y, xx=none, xt=none, color=none, textcolor=none, style=none, gridstyle=none, grid=false, top=false, axis=true, zero=false, ticks=1, labels=true)

Draws a y-axis to the plot window This function is similar to yaxis(). top : labels on top of the axis See:

yaxis (Plot Functions),

yaxis (Maxima Documentation)

functionxrange()

Writes the range of x below the x axis

functionxlabel(s, x:real=none, color=none, tcolor=0)

Puts the label text at the x-axis s : string, string vector or RGB image x : if present, x position of the label >plot2d("sin(2pi*x)",0,1); ... >xlabel(u"φ"); ... >ylabel(u"sin(φ)"): See:

text (Euler Core),

text (Plot Functions),

ylabel (Plot Functions),

ylabel (Maxima Documentation),

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionyrange()

Writes the range of y besides the y axis.

functionylabel(s,y=none,edge=none,vertical=none, color=none,tcolor=0)

Puts the label text at the y-axis edge : align with left of screen window vertical : vertical text (on by default) See:

xlabel (Plot Functions),

xlabel (Maxima Documentation)

functionplotwindow

Sets the plot window to the screen coordinates. This function makes the screen coordinates and the plot coordinates agree.

functiongetwindowfromplot

Get the window coordinates from the plot coordinates This is useful for plotrgb. >getwindowfromplot()

Windows

functionupperwindow(title="")

Select the upper half of the plot window for a plot See:

figure (Plot Functions)

functionlowerwindow(title="")

Select the lower half of the plot window for a plot See:

figure (Plot Functions)

functionargs adaptiveeval(f$:call, g$:call, a, b, eps=0.01, amin=1e-5, amax=1e5)

Compute f$(x), g$(x) for t in [a,b] with adaptive step size. eps is the target accuracy. amin and amax are the minimal and maximal step size. amax is also the initial step size. f and g can be expressions in x or user defined functions. Returns {x,y} See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

adaptiveevalone (Plot Functions),

adaptive (Numerical Algorithms)

functionargs adaptiveevalone(g$:call, a:number, b:number, .. eps=0.01, amin=0.00001, amax=0.01, square=1)

Compute g(x) for t in [a,b] with adaptive step size. eps is the target accuracy. amin and amax are the minimal and maximal step size. amax is also the initial step size. f and g can be expressions in x or user defined functions. Returns {x,y} See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

Euler can use any color with the rgb function.

But there are 16 pre-defined functions, which use the integer indices 0-15: white=0,black=1,red=2,green=3,blue=4, cyan=5, olive=6, lightgray=7, gray=8, darkgray=9, orange=10, lightgreen=11, turquoise=12, lightblue=13, lightorange=14, yellow=15.

Moreover, there are special colors: 255 for transparent grid plots, -1, -2 for spectral colors in hue plots.

functionrgb(r,g,b)

Computes a RGB color from [0,1]-values Returns an integer encryption of the color. Use to set rgb colors instead of a color index, and to define an image to be saved on disk. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

putred (Euler Core),

putgreen (Euler Core),

putblue (Euler Core),

savergb (Euler Core)

functionargs getrgb(x)

Computes the red, green and blue parts from an rgb color. Used to decompose image pixels into colors. Returns {r,g,b} See:

getred (Euler Core),

getblue (Euler Core),

getgreen (Euler Core),

loadrgb (Euler Core)

functioncomputehue(x,y,z,L=[0,0,1],amb=0.1,max=0.9,hue=1)

Computes the shading for a surface This is used in various plot functions. x,y,z : coordinates of the surface l : direction of light amb : ambient light max : maximal hue value hue : -2, -3, -4 for x, y, z direction (default 1)

This can should be done in the menu. But there are also functions for Euler scripts.

functionoverwrite savepng(filename:string, w:integer=0, h:integer=0, .. antialias:integer=1)

Save the current graphics as PNG file in current directory. Saves the current graphics in PNG format. If antialias=1, then the function takes more time, and needs more memory, but the output looks smoother. If w=0, "savepng" uses the screen width. If h=0, the current aspect ratio with the current width is used. The current directory is set by the "cd" command, or, if a notebook is saved or opened. See:

savesvg (Plot Functions),

saveps (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite savesvg(filename:string, w:integer=0, h:integer=0)

Save the current graphics as SVG file in current directory. Saves the current graphics in the format SVG (scalable vector format). If h=0, the current aspect ratio with the current width is used. The current directory is set by the "cd" command, or, if a notebook is saved or opened. See:

savepng (Plot Functions),

saveps (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite saveps(filename:string)

Save the current graphics as EPS file in current directory. Saves the current graphics in EPS (encapsulated postscript) format. The current directory is set by the "cd" command, or, if a notebook is saved or opened. See:

savepng (Plot Functions),

savesvg (Plot Functions)

functionfcontour(f$,xmin=none,xmax=1,ymin=-1,ymax=1,r=none, n=40,nc=defaultnc,hue=0,level="auto", grid=2,title="",add=0,color=none,hcolor=0,maps=0, contourcolor=none, contourwidth=1,style="#",outline=1,frame=1)

Draw contour lines of a function or expression in x and y. Obsolete. Use plot2d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functiondatacontour(Z:real, a:number=0, b:number=1, c:number=0, d:number=1, nc=defaultnc, hue=0, level="auto", grid=2, title="", add=0, color=1, hcolor=0, contourcolor=none, contourwidth=none, style="#", outline=1, frame=1)

Draw contour lines of a data matrix. Obsolete. Use plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionflevel(f$,level=0,xmin=-1,xmax=1,ymin=-1,ymax=1,n=50,maps=0)

Draw contour lines of a function or expression in x and y Obsolete, since plot3d should be used now. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionfrotate(f$,a,b,n=40,nt=40,scale=1,frame=1, .. xlabel="x",ylabel="y",zlabel="z")

Show a rotated plot of a function Obsolete, since plot3d with user=1 should be used now. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functiontriangle

Obsolete function

functionf3dimplicit(f$:string, x:real vector, y:real vector, z:real vector, .. fr:integer=1, xlabel:string="x", ylabel:string="y", zlabel:string="z", .. scale:real=1, direction:integer=4, maps=0, .. contourcolor=1, contourwidth=1)

Implicit 3D plot contours at z-values.

functionsolidhue(x:real, y:real, z:real, h:real, f:number=1, level=none, nc:index=10, values=none, contourcolor=1, contourwidth=1, dl=none, breaks=none, limits=none, linewidth=none)

Shaded solid 3D-plot of x,y,z h is the shading and should run between 0 and 1. f determines, if h is scaled to fit in between 0 and f. See:

solid (Euler Core),

solidhuecontour (Euler Core),

solidhuecontour (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionsolidhuecontour(x:real, y:real, z:real, h:real, v:real, w:real, breaks=none, limits=none)

Shaded solid 3D-plot with contour lines. This function is just for compatibility with older Euler files. It calls the built-in solid function. See:

solid (Euler Core),

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functiondrawbutton(text:string, x:real scalar, y:real scalar, w:real scalar)

Draw a button with the text at x,y with w character width. x centered and y top of the label. Return the button rectangle. This function can be used to program user interaction with clicks onto the screen. See:

inbutton (Plot Functions)

functioninbutton(b:real vector, s:real vector)

Test if the screen coordinates s are with in the button rectangle b. Get s with toscreen(mouse()) to ask the user for a click. See:

drawbutton (Plot Functions),

mouse (Euler Core)

functionfplot(f$,a=0,b=0,n=200,grid=2)

Plots the function f in [a,b] fplot("f") or fplot("f",,,n,...) plots f in the old interval. fplot uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". f$ may be an expression in x. Deprecated! See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionf3dplotlight(f$, xmin=-1,xmax=1,ymin=-1,ymax=1,n=40, scale=1,fscale=1,light=[0,0,1],amb=0.1,max=0.9,fr=1, xlabel="x",ylabel="y",zlabel="z",level=none,hue=1, maps=0,contourcolor=1,contourwidth=1, dl=none,limits=none, nc=defaultnc, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05, zlim=none)

Plots a function f(x,y,...) in a square. Also f3dplot("f",xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax,n;...). f3dplot uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". "f" may be an expression in x and y. Obsolete. Use plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionf3dplotpolar(f$,rmax=1,n=40,scale=1,fscale=1, .. frame=1,wire=0,xlabel="x",ylabel="y",zlabel="z",maps=0, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05)

Draw a function defined on the circle with radius rmax. f3d uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". n is the spacing. Obsolete. Use plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionf3dplotpolarl(f$,rmax=1,n=20,scale=1,fscale=1, light=[0,0,1],amb=0.2,max=0.8,frame=1, xlabel="x",ylabel="y",zlabel="z", level="auto",hue=1,maps=0, dl=none, limits=none, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05, nc=defaultnc)

Draw a function defined on the circle with radius rmax. f3d uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". n is the spacing. Obsolete. Use plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionmark3(x,y,z)

Plots points in three dimensions. x,y,z must be 1xn vectors. Obsolete. Use plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionclipping(flag:integer=true)

Sets clipping off or on globally for 2D plot functions. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionoverwrite plot(x=0, y=0)

Plots the values (x(i),y(i)) with the current style. If x is a matrix, y must be a matrix of the same size. The plot is then drawn for all rows of x and y. The plot is scaled automatically, unless hold is on. plot(x,y) and plot() return [x1,x2,y1,y2], where [x1,x2] is the range of the x-values and [y1,y2] of the y-values. plot(x) is the same as plot(1:cols(x),x). To turn off the clipping set defaultclipping=false See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionoverwrite mark(x=0,y=0,c=1)

Plots markers at (x(i),y(i)) according the the actual marker style. Works like plot. Obsolete. Use plot2d instead. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functioncplot(z)

Plots a grid of complex numbers. Obsolete. Use plot2d instead. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionscale(z:real, scale:number=1, center:number=0, retscale:integer=0)

Scale the matrix z into [0,scale] z : real matrix scale : maximal absolute value of the returned matrix retscale : returns the scaling factor f and center c too. center : Scales into [-scale,scale] If >retscale, the function returns {znew,f,c}. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionscalez(z,scale)

Scale the matrix z to [-scale,scale]. This is a function used by plot3d with parameter scale=1. Returns the scaled matrix and and the scaling factor. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionscalez0(z:real, scale:number, center:integer=1)

Scale the matrix z to [-scale,scale] symmetrical to 0. This is a function used by plot3d. Returns the scaled matrix and the scale. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionf3d(f,m=40)

functionf3dplot(f$,xmin=-1,xmax=1,ymin=-1,ymax=1,n=40, .. scale=1,fscale=1,frame=1,wire=0,xlabel="x",ylabel="y",zlabel="z", .. sliced=0,maps=0,wirecolor=1, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05, nc=defaultnc)

f3dplot("f") plots a function f(x,y,...) in a square. Obsolete function. Use plot3d instead. f3dplot uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". "f" may be an expression in x and y. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionoverwrite density(x,f=0.9,amb=0.1)

Makes density plot of the values in the matrix x scaled to fit into [0,f]. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionplot3dbars(x : real vector, y : real vector, z : real, .. z0 : real scalar)

Plot bars at x[i],y[j] with height z[i,j]. The bars have limits x[i],x[i+1] and y[j],y[j+1] and use the values z[i,j]. z must be at least (n-1)x(m-1), if x is 1xn and y is 1xm. The bars are sorted correctly before they are plotted by plotcubes. A comfortable way to use is is via plot3d and bar=true. See:

plotcubes (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionoverwrite plotcubes(M, color=none, xy=false, midpoints=false)

Plot cubes (parallel to the axes) The rows of M contain [x1,x2,y1,y2,z2,z2] with lower and upper limits for the sides of the cubes. The cubes are sorted either by distance of the midpoint to the eye, or by distance of the projection to the x-y-plane. See:

plot3dbars (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite insimg(lines:index=35, name:string="", .. antialias=1, crop=none)

Insert the graphics into the notebook. Insert the graphics with default size and name into the notebook. The image appears in the notebook with the given height in lines. If the name is not empty, the image will be saved under this name when the notebook is saved. If the image is too small it will take less lines. antialiased : looks good for most plots, but not for all. crop : inserts only a top portion of the graphics. The crop can be a vector [top,bottom,left,right] of numbers from 0 to 1, or it can be [top,bottom], or only bottom. The defaults are [0,1,0,1]. The crop works well with the aspect function. In fact, if an aspect is active with larger width than height, only the active portion of the image is inserted automatically. This function is used by the : at the end of command lines. >plot2d("x^3"); insimg(); >plot2d("x^3"): // simpler alternative See:

insimg (Euler Core),

loadimg (Euler Core),

loadimg (Plot Functions),

aspect (Euler Core),

aspect (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite insrgb(x:real, lines:integer=25, name:string="")

Insert an rgb image matrix into the notebook. The image appears in the notebook with the given height in lines. If the name is not empty, the image will be saved under this name when the notebook is saved. If the image is too small it will take less lines. >M=ones(1000,1000)*linspace(0,1,999); >insrgb(rgb(M,0.5,M),10); See:

insimg (Euler Core),

insimg (Plot Functions)

functionplotrgb(x:real, window:real vector=none, tcolor=none)

Plot an rgb image into the plot window. The window can be a vector with screen coordinates or none. For sync with the plot coordinates use getwindowfromplot(); >s=linspace(0,1,100); t=s'; c=rgb(s,t,0); >plot2d(none,0,1,0,1); plotrgb(c); See:

getwindowfromplot (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite loadimg(filename:string, lines:index=35, scale:positive=1)

Insert an image from file. The image appears in the notebook with the given height in lines. filename : filename including extension (jpg or png) n : maximal number of lines to be used scale : scale with this factor See:

insimg (Euler Core),

insimg (Plot Functions),

loadimg (Euler Core)

functionoverwrite loadanaglyph

loadanaglyph("left","right") or loadanaglyph(n,"left","right") Loads two images, combines them to one anaglyph, and inserts the images into the notebook. n : maximal number of lines to be used (default is 40) See:

loadanaglyph (Euler Core),

loadimg (Euler Core),

loadimg (Plot Functions)

functionfigure(n:natural, m:index=none, smaller=0)

figure (nc,nr) or figure(nc), figure(0) for sub-windows figure(nr,nc) divides the graph window into nr rows x nc columns of subplots figure(n) sets the current drawing window to the nth subplot counting by rows. figure(0) sets the plot back to the normal window smaller : if set, there is more space for vertical labels. >figure(3,1,>smaller); ... >figure(1); plot2d("sin(x)",0,2pi,yl="sin"); ... >figure(2); plot2d("cos(x)",0,2pi,yl="cos"); ... >figure(3); plot2d("sinc(x)",0,2pi,yl="sinc"); ... >figure(0):

functiontitle(s, color=none, x:real=none)

Plots a title to the graphics window. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionsettitle(s, color=none, x:real=none)

Plots a title to the graphics window. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionfwebplot(f$:string, a:real scalar, b: real scalar, .. xstart: real scalar, n: index, color=black)

Plots an iteration of fff on [a,b] starting from xstart, n steps This function can be used to study, demonstrate or understand fixed point iteration of the type x(n+1) = f(x(n)). See:

iterate (Numerical Algorithms),

sequence (Numerical Algorithms)

functionargs vectorfield(f$:string, x1: real scalar=-2, x2: real scalar=2, .. y1:real scalar=-2, y2: real scalar=2, r=none, cx=0, cy=0, nx:index=20, ny:index=20, thickness=1, color=black, frame=1, plot=true)

Draw the vector field of a differential equation in x and y. expr : expression "f(x,y)", which computes the derivative of y(x) at x. x1,x2,y1,y2 : bounds of the plot r,cx,xy : alternative way to enter the bounds nx, ny : number of arrows in each direction thickness,color,frame : see plot2d plot : do not plot but return x,y for later plots with plot2d(). >vectorfield("x*y",r=1,cx=1,cy=1): See:

vectorfield2 (Plot Functions),

ode (Numerical Algorithms)

functionargs vectorfield2(f1$:string, f2$:string, .. x1: real scalar=-2,x2: real scalar=2, y1: real scalar=-2,y2: real scalar=2, nx:index=20, ny:index=20, r=none, cx=0, cy=0, nx:index=20, ny:index=20, scale=1, normalize=0, thickness=1, color=black, frame=1, plot=true)

Draw the vector field of a differential equation in x and y. expr1 and expr2 : expressions "f(x,y)", which compute the x- and y-value of the derivative of y(x) at x. scale : scaling factor for the arrows x1,x2,y1,y2 : bounds of the plot r,cx,xy : alternative way to enter the bounds nx, ny : number of arrows in each direction thickness,color,frame : see plot2d normalize : derivative vectors are normalized plot : do not plot but return x,y for later plots with plot2d(). >>vectorfield2("-y","x",r=1): >vectorfield2("x","x*y",>normalize): See:

ode (Numerical Algorithms)

functionoverwrite view

view(distance, tele, angle1, angle2) sets the perspective for solid and view. distance is the eye distance, tele a zooming factor. angle1 is the angle from the negativ y-axis to the positive x-axis. angle2 is the angle to the positive z-axis (the height of the eye). view() returns the current value of view in a vector. view is used in plot3d as the default view. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation),

zoom (Plot Functions)

functionzoom(f:positive=none)

Set the zoom distance to d. See:

view (Euler Core),

view (Plot Functions),

view (Maxima Documentation)

functionviewangle(a:real scalar=none)

Set the view angle to a. See:

view (Euler Core),

view (Maxima Documentation)

functionviewheight(a:real scalar=none)

Set the view height angle to a. See:

view (Euler Core),

view (Maxima Documentation)

functionviewdistance(d:positive=none)

Set the view distance to d. See:

view (Euler Core),

view (Maxima Documentation)

functionf3daxis(f$:string, n:index=25)

Draw a function defined on [-1,1]^2 with x-, y- and z-axis. f3daxis uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". 2n is the spacing. Fixed view, cannot be rotated. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionf3daxispolar(f$:string, n:index=20)

Draw a function defined on [-1,1]^2 with x-, y- and z-axis. 2n is the spacing. f3daxispolar uses map for the evaluation of the function "f". Fixed view, cannot be rotated. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionstereo(f$:string, a:number=-0.05, s:index=500, .. d:number=1, parallel:natural=0)

Stereo plot of the function f from two viewpoints Calls the function f, which must be the name of a 3D plot command, and does it twice in two different windows. Many people are able to view a 3D picture. There are two ways: parallel view and squint view. Most people find the latter easier. It is the default for this function.

functionparameterplot(f:string, a:number, d:number, .. display=1, c=800, r=100, .. amax=1e30, amin=-1e30)

Call the plot function f with parameter a adjustable by user. Animate a paramter with the up/down keys, and show a plot depending on that parameter. The space key resets the default parameter, and the return key ends the function. f : function of a (and additional semicolon parameters) a : starting value parameter a d : increment with one keystroke display : flag for the display of the parameter value c,r : coordinates for the display amax,amin : limits for the display See:

twoparameterplot (Plot Functions)

functiontwoparameterplot(f$:string, a:number, b:number, d:number, .. display=1, c=800, r=100, .. amax=1e30, amin=-1e30)

Call the plot function f with parameter a adjustable by user. Animate a parameter a with the up/down keys, and a parameter b with left/right keys, and show a plot depending on that parameter. The space key resets the default parameter, and the return key ends the function. f : function of a,b (and additional semicolon parameters) a : starting value of parameter a b : second parameter b d : increment with one keystroke display : flag for the display of the parameter values c,r : coordinates for the display amax,amin : limits for the display

functionargs makeimpulse(x:real vector,y:real vector,d=0.1)

Compute {x1,y1} for impulse bar plots. Computes the correct input for an impulse bar plot at points x with values y. x : sorted x parameters y : values d : radius of the plot intervals

functiondragpoints(f$ : string, x : real, y : real, status="Drag one of the points!")

Lets the user drag points on a user defined plot. This function calls a function f(x,y), which draws some plot depending on the points at coordinates x[i] and y[i]. Then it lets the user drag one of the points with the mouse. f : f(x,y[,select]) a plot function. select is the index of the selected point, if not select==0. Additional arguments are passed to f. Returns {x,y} Example: >function f(x,y) := plot2d(x,y,>points,a=0,b=1,c=0,d=1); >{x,y}=dragpoints("f",random(1,10),random(1,10));

functiondragvalues(f$, names, values, ranges, stops=100, x=0.98, y=0.02, w=0.4, tcolor=none, digits=none, heading=none, hcolor=none, status="")

Let the user drag parameters for a plot. This function lets the user drag values for plots. A box with values appears, by default in the upper right, with an optional heading. The values can be dragged to the right or left, and change within given ranges and steps. f : A plot function depending on a vector of parameters. names : The names of the parameters for the display. values : Initial values of the parameters (string vector of length n or string) ranges : A nx2 vector of ranges for the values stops : A vector with the number of subintervals for each range x,y,w : Position anchored in the top right (fraction of plot window) tcolor : A vector with colors for the values or one scalar color digits : A vector of digits for rounding the values or a scalar heading : An optional heading string hcolor : The color of the heading status : An optional string for the status line Example: >function f([a,b]) := plot2d("a*x^2+b*x";a,b,r=1); >dragvalues("f",["a","b"],[0,0],[-1,1;-1,1],digits=2, ... > heading="a*x^2+b*x");

The following functions in this section are obsolete, since plot3d can now animate 3D graphics under user control. E.g. plot2d and plot3d have the parameter >user.

functionanimate(d:real scalar=0.1)

Animate pre-defined pages with delay d. This animates predefined images. The function was designed for slower computers or for complicated plots. If the computer is fast enough, plots can also be generated directly. Then wait() will issue the display of the current plot. For animate(), the pages must be generated with calls to addpage(), as in the following example. deletepages(); title("Creating Animation"); addpage(); showpage(1); loop ... ... // graph something addpage(); end; See:

addpage (Euler Core),

showpage (Euler Core),

wait (Euler Core),

rotate (Plot Functions)

functionrotate(f$:string, d:real scalar=0.01, n:integer=120)

Shows a rotating animation of the plot f$, The plotting function f$ must produce a 3D plot. This functions used addpage() to pre-compute all plots. Seen the remarks in animate() for an easier method. Obsolete, since the plot can now be rotated with plot3d under user control. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation),

animate (Plot Functions)

functionview3d(f$:string, d:real scalar=0.1)

Calls the plot f$ and waits for key strokes to rotate it. Use the cursor keys for rotation, del and backspace, or space, to reset, return to abort. Returns the current view. Obsolete, use plot3d(). See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionfanimate(f$:string, t:vector, d:real scalar=0.01)

Animate the function f$ f$ should display some graphics depending on t. Additional parameters are passed to f. This function used addpage() to pre-compute the plots. See the remarks in animate() for an easier method.

Most of the following functions need never be used, since 3D graphics should be done with plot3d.

functiongetframe(x,y,z)

Gets a box around all points in (x,y,z). Returns [xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax,zmin,zmax]

functioncubescale(x,y,z)

return a scaling that makes (x,y,z) fit to the unit cube.

functionframedplot(f$:string, frame:real vector, sframe:real vector=none, xl:string="x", yl:string="y", zl:string="z", ticks:integer=1, view=none, zoom=none, distance=none, angle=none, height=none, center=none,fr=1)

General function for framed plots. This function does the same as the functions called by plot3d. It draws a frame around a plot. The frame is drawn in two parts, one in the back and one in the front. It can display ticks, which may have nothing to do with the frame itself (sframe parameter). A function using this function can be used in plot3d with parameter >own to allow anaglyphs or turning. f : A 3D plot function. This can also be plot3d with parameter <frame. Semicolon parameters are passed to f. frame : The frame. take care that the plot fits into the frame. The frame is a vector of the form [xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax,zmin,zmax] sframe : The tick values for the frame. If sframe=none then frame is used. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionframedsolid(x:real, y:real, z:real, scale:real vector=1, fr:integer=1, hf:number=1, disconnect=none, xlabel:string="x", ylabel:string="y", zlabel:string="z", sliced:integer=0, bar:integer=0, z0:real=0, frame:real vector=none, sframe:real vector=none, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05, nc=defaultnc, linewidth=none)

3D plot with frame. x, y, and z must be compatible matrices. The determine the coordinates of the 3D images of a parameter matrix. If scale is specified, then the plot is scaled to fit into a cube of side length 2*scale centered at 0. If fr=0 then no frame will be drawn around the plot. disconnect is a vector of indices containing the rows of the matrix, which should not be connected. sliced is a parameter, which produces sliced plots into the x, or the y direction. Should only be used for regular x,y grids. bar is a parameter, which makes the plot into steps. Should only be used for regular x,y grids. This function should only be used via plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionautolevel(a,b,nc,d=0.1)

Compute automatic levels between a and b

functionplotcontourplane(x, y, z, style=1, color=1, level=none, delta=0.05, nc=defaultnc, grid=false, contourcolor=none, scale=false, linewidth=none)

Plot a contour plane below the 3D plot This is called by plot2d() if >cp is set. The functions projects the contours of the plane with coordinates x,y,z to a plane below the plot. x,y,z : coordinates of the surface style : 1=level lines only, 2=shading and level lines level : "auto", "thick", "thin" or level values If level is a 2xn matrix it plots ranges cpcolor : color of the shading cpdelta : distance from below the plot nc : number of lines for automatic levels grid : grid values for an additional grid. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

functionvieweye()

The position of the eye depending on center and view

functionframedsolidhue(x:real, y:real, z:real, hue, .. scale:real vector=1, f:number=1, fr:integer=1, hf:number=1, .. xlabel:string="x", ylabel:string="y", zlabel:string="z", .. level=none, values=none, light=[0.5,0.5,1], amb=0.1, max=0.9, huecolor=0, .. contourcolor=1, contourwidth=1, z0=0, frame=none, sframe=none, dl=none, limits=none, nc=defaultnc, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05, linewidth=none, zlim=none)

3D plot with hue, and optional level lines. x, y, and z must be compatible matrices. They determine the coordinates of the 3D images of a parameter matrix. hue is an additional compatible matrix, which determines the color shade of the matrix at each point. E.g., plot3d computes the hue using a light source. level is a row vector of level levels, which are to be drawn. values is a matrix of the same size as x, y, and z which contains the values, which determine the level. By default, the value will be z (values=none). If scale is specified, then the plot is scaled to fit into a cube of side length 2*scale centered at 0. If fr=0 then no frame will be drawn around the plot. disconnect is a vector of indices containing the rows of the matrix, which should not be connected. This function should only be used via plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation)

functionframedwire(x:real, y:real, z:real, scale:real vector=1, fr:integer=1, hf:number=1, xlabel:string="x", ylabel:string="y", zlabel:string="z", wirecolor:number=none, rowsonly:integer=0, z0:real=0, frame:real vector=none, sframe:real vector=none, cp=0, cpcolor=1, cplevel="auto", cpdelta=0.05, linewidth=none)

3D wire plot with frame. x, y, and z must be compatible matrices. They determine the coordinates of the 3D images of a parameter matrix. If scale is specified, then the plot is scaled to fit into a cube of side length 2*scale centered at 0. If fr=0 then no frame will be drawn around the plot. With rowsonly=1 the wire will be drawn only in one direction. The wirecolor can be specified with the variable wirecolor. Use any of the 16 predefined colors, or an rgb value. This function should only be used via plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation),

rgb (Plot Functions)

functionframedmark3(x:real, y:real, z:real, scale:real vector=1, fr:integer=1, hf:number=1, xlabel:string="x", ylabel:string="y", zlabel:string="z", color=1, z0:number=0, frame:real vector=none, sframe:real vector=none)

3D point plot with frame. x, y, and z must be row vectors. They determine the coordinates of the 3D images of the points. This function should only be used via plot3d. See:

plot3d (Plot Functions),

plot3d (Maxima Documentation),

rgb (Plot Functions)

functionoverwrite subgrid(v)

Sets the sub-grid for grid plots This is usually called by plot2d() automatically. The sub-grid determines the number of grid lines which are drawn in a 3D plot. This allows a finer plot than the visible grid lines indicate. In plot2d(), the parameter grid= controls the sub-grids. Calls the built-in function _subgrid, which works with 1x2 vectors. >plot3d("x^2-y^3",grid=[10,5]): See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation)

MatPlotLib is a very nice plotting library for Python. It has to be installed separately into Python. Consult the remarks about the installation of EMT for more details.

functionpyins(lines=35, close=true)

Insert a Python plot into the notebook This saves a plot done with MatPlotLib in the working directory of EMT, and loads the saved file to the current notebook. By default, the plot is closed. Unclosed plots can be displayed with show() in a separate window or saved in other formats too. lines : number of lines for the plot in the notebook close : close the plot

These function should not be called directly. Use plot2d to produce log plots.

functionlogticks(aa, bb=none, base=10)

Logarithmic ticks See:

xlogplot (Plot Functions)

functionxlogplot(x:positive, y, xbase=10, color=1, points=false, frame=1, grid=2, ticks=1)

Logarithmic plot Instead of this, plot2d() should be used with the parameter logplot=1. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

ylogplot (Plot Functions),

xylogplot (Plot Functions)

functionylogplot(x, y:positive, ybase=10, color=1, points=false, frame=1, grid=2, ticks=1)

Logarithmic plot Instead of this, plot2d() should be used with the parameter logplot=2. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

xlogplot (Plot Functions),

xylogplot (Plot Functions)

functionxylogplot(x:positive, y:positive, xbase=10, ybase=10, color=1, points=0, frame=1, grid=2, ticks=1)

Logarithmic plot Instead of this, plot2d() should be used with the parameter logplot=3. See:

plot2d (Plot Functions),

plot2d (Maxima Documentation),

xlogplot (Plot Functions)

LaTeX needs to be installed separately. I recommend MiKTeX for Windows. If you do not install the full package, you may have to wait a bit, when MiKTeX installs necessary packages. EMT may issue a warning.

functioncomment tex(expr:string)

LaTeX code of the expression. This calls Maxima to for the LaTeX code of the expression. The result is a string.

functionoverwrite texpng(latex:string, usealias=true, factor=1.0, backcolor=-1, color=none)

PNG file containing the scanned LaTeX code. LaTeX must be installed for this. The string will be inserted as a display formula into a LaTeX document in the working directory of EMT. Then LaTeX will be called to translate the document. Finally the DVI file will be transformed into a PNG with "dvipng". The text color is the current text color as set with textcolor(), unless set as parameter color. The background color is the color number 0 of the graphics, usually white. The font size is the current font size. The scan is always tree times larger than necessary to allow for anti-aliasing. usealias : dvipng should alias the formula factor : make the formula larger by this factor transparent : use -1 for the current background color of the graphics, and 0 for the background color of the text. 1 yields a transparent graphics. Note that loadrgb() ignores transparency. color : use another color for the text The output is C:\Users\Username\Euler\eulertemp.png. It is usually loaded by loadrgb() and drawn into the graphics with plotrgb(). The function label() does this. This is calling the built-in function texpng() with the same arguments. See:

loadrgb (Euler Core),

label (Plot Functions),

label (Maxima Documentation),

xlabel (Plot Functions),

xlabel (Maxima Documentation),

ylabel (Plot Functions),

ylabel (Maxima Documentation),

setfont (Euler Core),

setfont (Basic Utilities),

latex: (Euler Core)

functionlatex(s:string, color=none, factor=1.0)

RGB matrix containing the scanned LaTeX code. s : LaTeX code color : the text color; if none, the default text color is used. factor: scale the Latex output by this factor. This combines texpng() and loadrgb() to scan a LaTeX formula to an RGB matrix. With plotrgb() such a matrix can be plotted into a plot window. For more details, see texpng(). A symbolic expression can be transformed to Latex by Maxima with tex(expr). Returns an image as a matrix of RGB values. >expr &= integrate(x^2*sin(x),x) >plot2d(expr,0,2pi,grid=6); label(latex(tex(expr)),1,-10): See:

text (Euler Core),

text (Plot Functions),

texpng (Plot Functions),

plotrgb (Plot Functions),

label (Plot Functions),

label (Maxima Documentation),

xlabel (Plot Functions),

xlabel (Maxima Documentation),

ylabel (Plot Functions),

ylabel (Maxima Documentation),

tex (Maxima Documentation)

functionoverwrite text(s, c:real, r:real=none, color=none, align:integer=-1, vertical=0, left=none, center=none, right=none, up=none, down=none, scale=1/3, tcolor=0)

Put text or RGB matrix on the screen. This function works for a single string, a vector of strings, or an RGB matrix of an image, e.g. a LaTeX formula. It can align the text left, center, or right, or vertically up or down. RGB images can be from the latex() function. This functions returns three times enlarged images. Thus the default scale factor is 1/3. s : string, string vector, or RGB image c : column in screen coordinates or vector [c,r] r : row in screen coordinates color : text color align : -1,0,1 for left, center, right vertical : 0,1,2 for not vertical, up, down left, center, right : sets align up, down : sets vertical scale : scale for the RGB image tcolor : transparency color for the RGB image >plot2d(''integrate("x^x",1,x)'',0,2,grid=6); ... >text(latex("f(x) = 'integrate(t^t,t,1,x)"),toscreen(0.5,1)); ... >g &= integrate(taylor(t^t,t,1,2),t,1,x); ... >plot2d(g,color=red,>add); ... >text(latex("g(x) = T_2f(x)",color=red),toscreen(0.5,0.7)): See:

latex (Plot Functions),

plotrgb (Plot Functions),

label (Plot Functions),

label (Maxima Documentation),

text (Euler Core)